Tag Archives: Mughlai cuisine

Sultani Daal

Sultani Daal

Sultani Daal

Lucknowi Sultani daal is one of the gems of Lucknowi Kitchen of Nawabs . The aroma coming out from this heavenly dish is so tantalizing , you can’t resist yourself taking it again and again . The specialty of this preparation is ,the daal is smoked by coal on a betel leaf (paan pata) before giving bagar (tempering spices).

Ingredients :

1 cup of pigeon peas / arhar daal/ toor daal
1/2 ( half) tea spoon ginger paste
1/2 ( half) tea spoon garlic paste
1 tea spoon turmeric powder
1/2( half) cup of yogurt
1/2 ( half) cup of heavy cream
Salt to taste
4/5 Whole green chilies
1/2 ( half) teaspoon cinnamon powder
Special masala , apply all

For the special masala , take 10 cloves , 1 tea spoon cumin , 1 tea spoon coriander , 1 tea spoon fennel , 4/5 cardamoms . Dry roast them and grind them into a fine powder .

For the tempering or bagar:

1/4 th cup of finely sliced onion
2 garlic cloves ,thinly sliced
1 tea spoon whole jeera or cumin
2/3 whole red chilli


Other ingredients :

1 coal and a betel leaf to smoke the daal .
1 tea spoon clove powder
1 tea spoon ghee


1. Soak the daal overnight or at least 5 hours . Wash and drain well .

2. Cook the daal with ginger , garlic paste and enough water until the daal gets well cooked and becomes mushy and thick .

3. Place a betel leaf ( paan pata) on the daal and add a burning coal on the leaf . Add immediately ghee and clove powder . Close the lid of the pot and let it smoked for 2 minutes .

4. Carefully take out the coal and the leaf from the daal . Now add the beaten yogurt and cream . Add the cinnamon powder and special masala . Add the salt . Cook for another 5 minutes . Add the whole green chilies .

5. For tempering , heat ghee and add whole cumin . Add the onion , garlic and whole red chili . Fry until the onion and garlic gets brown . Pour this over the daal .

Serve hot with rice , pulao , roti , paratha or naan . 🙂


1. Don’t add salt while boiling the daal . Always add salt after the daal being properly cooked .

2. While smoking the daal , always remember , the coal must be fully burning one . If the coal is not properly burnt , the flavor won’t come and may ruin your dish .

Lucknowi Mutton Biriyani or Mutton Pulao

Lucknowi Mutton Biriyani or Mutton Pulao

Luknowi Mutton Biriyani or Mutton Pulao

Interestingly , In Lucknow there is nothing like Biriyani !!! Biriyani is synonymous with “Pulao”, in Luknow , this is pulao !!!! But in other parts of India , Pulao is something where rice and meat are cooked together , at the same time , in the same vessel , lacking the grandeur and glory of that of “Biriyani”. So in present days , the term “Biriyani” is being included or more specifically intruded in the culinary dictionary of Lucknow so as not to confuse the Lucknowi delicacy with that of the “Pulao” pf other regions !!!

Luknow !!! The historical city of secrets and mysteries !!! The Luknowi cuisins , though a variant of Mughlai cuisins ,are so subtle in taste but so flavorful , so refined yet so elegant . Lots of secret ingredients made the whole gharana mysterious to others . The Sub-continent owe a lot to the dastarkhan of the Nawabs , no doubt !!! My studies about Luknowi/ Awadhi cuisine found a great influence of the gharana on many cuisines of Bangladesh , may be because of the fact ,the last Nawab of Awadh , Wajed Ali Khan was being exiled in Bengal !!!!! He did not forget to bring the main chefs of his kitchen with him !!! No wonder , the Nawabs were the greatest foodie ever !!!
The main characteristics of Luknowi biriyani are ,
1. The biriyani is the pakki biriyani , that is the meat is cooked before and the stock or Yakhni is kept aside . No powdered garam masala , no mint or cilantro , no tomato . Keora or screw pinewater along with saffron is essential .

2. The rice is cooked in the Yakhni or stock with ghee .

3. The layering of meat and rice and then the pot is sealed with a flour dough and will be kept in steam , the process known as “Dumpukht” .

Here you go with Luknowi Mutton biriyani !!! Though fine quality basmati rice is supposed to be used in the recipe , I preferred our very own Kalijeera or chinigura chaal for it’s unique and distinct flavor !!! I have never found such an aromatic varieties of rice anywhere !!

Ingredients :

1 kg of mutton ( try to take the tender parts with bones )
4 Cups Of Aromatic rice like Basmati / kalojeera/ chinagura
2 potatoes , cut in big chunk

For the Yakhni/ stock :

Masala/ spices for the stock:

2 black cardamom
9/10 green cardamom
2 sticks of 2 inches cinnamon
2 star anise
1 and half tea spoon of black pepper
9/10 cloves
1 teaspoon fennel
1 tea spoon of cumin
1 teaspoon of black cumin/ sha-jeera
1 teaspoon of mace/ javetri
2 bayleaves
Ginger chopped 2 and half tbl spoon
Garlic Chopeed 1 tbl spoon

For the gravy :

1/2 (half) cup yogurt
1 tbl spoon Ginger
2 teaspoon garlic
3/4 th cup fried onion Bereshta
1 tea spoon red chili powder
1 bayleaf
4/5 green cardamom
1 stick of 2 inches long cinnamon
Black pepper
5/6 cloves
1 tea spoon mace / javetri ( dry roasted and broken by hands)
1/2 (half) teaspoon of nutmeg
Cream or Milk, 200 ml ( three-fourth cup)
Sugar ( aound 1 teaspoon , heaped)
9/10 Whole green chilies

For the rice :

6 cups of stock , prepared by the mutton
1 small stick of cinnamon , 1 small black cardamom and 1 small star anise
Salt to taste
Ghee less than half cup ( If you are using non-stick utensil , take less, just enough that the rice is well coated with the ghee and there is no extra ghee)

Other ingredients:

Fried onion or bereshta
Whole green chilies 5/6
Saffron or zafran soaked in milk
Dried plum/ alubokhara
Keora water


1. Soak rice in water . In a cheese cloth put everything mentioned for stock, except salt. Now tie up the cloth like a parcel and put it in a pot filled with 14 cups of Warm water. Put the mutton pieces don’t add salt now . Let it boil and add the salt just 5 minutes before you turn off the stove , till the mutton are three-fourths done .Reduce the stock to 8 cups. Don’t take out the masala bundle while doing so.

2. Now , the gravy part . Blend the yogurt with fried onion or bereshta . Heat ghee , fry the whole garam masala for a while .Add ginger-garlic paste and red chili powder. Add the blended yogurt and cook for a while . Add the mutton , keep cooking on a medium low flame . Now add 2 cups of stock from the prepared stock . Reserve remaining 6 cups for the rice . Check the salt , add a little bit , since the stock has the salt too .Add the potatoes chunk . Careful , the potatoes must not be fully done . Just 70 % or so otherwise it will be mashed in the biriyani while the biriyani will be on “Dam” .When the gravy reduced a bit , add the cream or milk, mace and nutmeg powder and handful of whole green chilies . There must be 1 cup of gravy in the mutton .

3. Put ghee in a pot . Drain out the water from the rice and add into the ghee . Add 6 cups of stock . Add the cinnamon stick. black cardamom , star anise . Add salt, but careful , the stock has salt too . So Adjust the salt . Cover the lid and cook on medium flame . Don’t stir. When the water is completely dried out , turn off the stove . The rice would look like 80% done.

4. Now the layering part . Take a pot , first layer with the mutton with gravy . Put some whole green chilies , alubokhara , raisins over the mutton . Layer now with the rice . Cover it with fried onion , bereshta . Add saffron , ghee , around 2 tbl spoon and sprinkle good amount of keora . Cover the lid tightly and keep it on “dum” for another 30 minutes. It is better to seal with a dough made with atta , but what I did , I put a heavy object on the lid so as to create the “Dumpakht” effect . 🙂
For “Dum” , I always follow double boiler method . Put your biriyani pot over another same sized pot filled with water . Turn on the stove on medium flame. The steam will do the wonder . Those who will put it in the oven , cover the lid tightly or wrap with double layer of aluminium foil .In a bake mode , keep it in the preheated oven for 20/ 25 minutes at 350 FH.

Serve hot with kabab and salad or raita .